Chapter 1
Introduction
Symbols, abbreviations and engineering units
SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS and ENGINEERING UNITS 1.3  

 
a  area ratio of the cone = A_{n}/A_{c}  
A_{c}  projected area of the cone  
A_{n}  crosssectional area of load cell or shaft  
B_{q}  pore pressure ratio = (u_{2}u_{0})/(q_{t}σ_{vo})  
c  coefficient of consolidation  
c_{h}  horizontal coefficient of consolidation  
c_{v}  vertical coefficient of consolidation  
C_{u}  undrained shear strength  
D  diameter  
E  Young's modulus  
f_{s}_{ }  unit sleeve friction resistance  
f_{t}  sleeve friction corrected for pore pressure effects  
F_{r }  normalised friction ration = f_{s}/(q_{t}σ_{vo})  
G  shear modulus  
H  layer thickness  
k  coefficient of permeability  
L  length  
m_{v}  coefficient of volume change  
N  number of blows in the SPT  
q_{c}  measured cone resistance  
q_{ca}  equivalent average cone reistance  
q_{n}  net cone resistance = q_{t}σ_{vo}  
q_{t}  corrected cone resistance = q_{c }+ (1a).u_{2 }  
q_{e}  effective cone resistance = (q_{c}a.u_{2}) = (q_{t}u_{2})  
Q_{c}  normalised cone resistance = (q_{c}σ_{vo})/σ'_{vo}  
Q_{t}  normalised cone resistance = (q_{t}σ_{vo})/σ'_{vo}  
R_{f}  friction ratio = (f_{s}/(q_{c}).100%  
s  settlement  
t  time  
t_{50}  time for 50% dissipation of excess porewater pressure  
u  porewater pressure  
u_{0}  insitu pore pressure  
u_{1}  pore pressure measured on the cone  
u_{2}  pore pressure measured behind the cone  
u_{3}  pore pressure measured behind friction sleeve  
u_{i}  pore pressure at time t = 0  
u_{t}_{ }  pore pressure at time = t  
Δu  excess porewater pressure = (uu_{0})  
U  normalised excess pore pressure  
z  depth  
σ_{v}  total vertical stress  
σ_{vo}  total overburden stress  
σ_{'v}  effective vertical stress  
σ'_{vo}  effective overburden stress  
Φ'  effective friction angle 
Abbreviations (symbols engineering units)  
BGL  below ground level 
BSP  British Standard pipes 
CAU  anisotropic consolidated undrained tiraxial test 
CFA  continuous flight augur 
CIU  consolidated isotropic undrained 
CPT  cone penetration test 
CPTU  CPT with pore pressure measurement (piezocone test) 
FSK  frequency shifting key 
GPR  ground probing radar 
HDPE  high density polyethylene 
ICRCL  Inter Departmental Committee on Redevelopment of Contaminated Land 
ISSMGE  International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 
IRTP  international reference test procedure 
MC  moisture content 
NAPL  nonaqueous phase liquid 
LNAPL  light nonaqueous phase liquid 
NC  normally consolidated 
OC  overconsolidated 
OCR  overconsolidated ration 
PAH  polycrylic aromatic hydrocarbon 
PC  personal computer 
PI  particle index 
PSD  particle size distribution 
PVC  polyvinyl chloride 
pH  concentration of hydrogen ions (acidity/alkalinity factor) 
SO_{4}  total sulphate 
SPT  standard penetration test 
UU  unconsolidated undrained 
UV  ultraviolet 
Engineering units (symbols abbreviations )  
Multiples  
micro (μM)  10^{6}  
milli (m)  10^{3}  
kilo (k)  10^{+3}  
mega (M)  10^{+6}  
SI base units  
length  metre (m)  
area  square metre (m^{2})  
force  newton (N)  
pressure or stress  pascal (Pa) (=N/m^{2})  
Multiple units  
length  millimetre (mm)  
kilometre (km)  
area  square millimetre (mm^{2})  
square kilometre (km ^{2})  
force  kilonewton (kN)  
pressure or stress  kilonewton per square metre (kPa)  
Meganewton per square metre (MPa)  
Conversion factors  
force  1 kg = 10 N  
1 ton = 10 kN  
pressure or stress  1kg/cm^{2} = 100 kPa = 100 kN/m^{2 }  
1 bar = 100 kPa = 100 kN/m^{2}  
1 ton/m^{2} = 10 kPa = 10 kN/m^{2}  
(ie 1m of water = 10kPa)  
Derived values for CPTU  
excess pore pressure  Δu  u_{2}u_{0}  
corrected cone resistance  q_{t} = q_{c} = (1  a).u_{2 }  
net cone resistance  q_{n} = q_{t}  σ_{vo}  
friction ratio  R_{f }= (f_{s}/q_{t}) x 100%  
pore pressure ration  B_{q} = Δu/q_{n}  
normalised excess pore pressure  U = (u_{t} U_{o})/(u_{i}u_{o}) where u_{t} is the pore pressure at time t in a dissipation test and u_{i} is the pore pressure at the start of the dissipation test 